The Belizean debate is ongoing:
The E CAT heater is a metal tube containing hydrogen gas, and nickel nano powder, plus a catalyst which is actually a couple of nickel isotopes, you can buy online. Common stuff and cheap. You heat the tube artificially to expand the hydrogen gas. This starts the reaction. Rossi blew up a few tubes in experiments. Expanding hydrogen via heat is limited to the strength of the tube material. Heating the tube from outside, is an off and on thing, like a space heater. Once the reaction starts, you only have to prime it periodically ( half hour ) with shots of outside heat and you get more heat out than you put in. Anyway you make as many heaters as you want to boil water and change it to steam. You can get more heat out, but it gets trickier and trickier the higher you go with the reaction temperature, as you are expanding the hydrogen gas in the tube, which puts pressure on the nano size nickel powders to create the condition for a self perpetuating heat production. The heat is used to boil something. The thing is, you can, THEY SAY, run a heating tube for about six months, ( Rossi says he´s done it ) for about $55 usa in hydrogen gas, nickel powders and hydrogen gas fill. I forget the temperature reached, but it is something like a 1000 degrees farenheight. This cost includes an outside heating element, that clicks on and off, to keep the reaction primed.
If you want to compare, think of a ten inch, by one inch, galvanize pipe containing the reaction ingredients producing the heat of a single burner butane hot plate, for $55 usa per six months of continuous 1000 degrees farenheight heat. You could boil a lot of water with many heater tubes and not have to touch them for six months. The catch for me, was that the output measurement of the steam was stated at 120 centigrade. This as KURT says, a steam engineer I believe? Giving steam pressure around 20 to 28 psi. There is not enough horsepower in that low a wet steam to produce work, as turning an electrical generator with load. You have residual losses before doing work from such low pressure steam. Desai a steam engine and electrical manufacturer in India, says you need 150 psi to produce work to generate electricity. He uses autmotive type pistons, that are 3 inches in diameter and have about a 3 inch stroke. The Russians made a heat electrical generator for kerosen lamps long ago. You simply set it on the top of the kerosene glass and the rising heat, spun the blades,which turned a generator, and ran a radio, or lit a small bulb. I´ve wanted one for ages. It would not be hard to make this right here in Belize, with scrap materials locally. I´ve forgotten the math calculations I used to know when young to design and wind a generator like this. With epoxy paste and metal filings easy to do.
GARBAGE DUMP SOLUTION AT THE NEW DUMP PLANNED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF BELIZE.
I think in Belize if you are going to do this, we should use the new garbage dump. With methane gas bleeder pipes in the garbage fill like in Florida and other places and flame the methane to produce FREE HEAT to turn low power turbines. There does not seem to be enough energy produced by E CAT low pressure steam from water, comparative to BUTANE. Slightly better cost effectiveness, but if you cannot get the steam pressure up enough to produce horsepower to do work, useless. There may be a low temperature hot air turbine you could make, with a chimney, like a 2 inch pipe to turn a generator though. Just not practical from steam, as your CATCH 22 situation prohibits taking advantage of the technology. You want to heat a building it works. The nano level physics of this, the scientists say, is different that our reality level of physics. Nano level physics bypasses the thermo dynamic laws in ion transfers as we understand them at our macro level.
To me, methane would be a more practical choice to run an electrical generator. Especially if your garbage was seperated into organic garbage from other garbage. You could feed a pig farm, or you could make fertilizer and in the process produce enough methane, to make a flame and heat and turn a low power generator, at low rpm. The Russians made one during the Cold War, that sat on a kerosene lamp. I´ve tried to get one for ages. You simply set it on the top of the kerosene glass and the rising heat, spun the blades,which turned a generator, and ran a radio, or lit a small bulb.
From: Bill Holly
Sent: Tuesday, January 3, 2012 6:37 PM
Subject: Re: [-BTG-] Re: Steam Engines
I now see why Ray is so fixated on 120 C steam - very wet steam. Dry steam is at least at 200 C. Dry steam appears not to be so hard on the engine components. But even wet steam can be up at high pressures, not dependent on heat alone. That depends on how much space the steam is generated in. The larger the volume, the less pressure. Boyles' Law.
I don't see why the e-cat cannot produce higher temps, depending on the setup, of course.
I do see that the developers are a bit cautious in this beginning stage and keep the temp down a bit.
On 1/3/2012 5:55 PM, Hugh Leyton wrote:
> Hi Kurt,
> Pressure in The Boiler, must, by definition be controlled to a large extent, by the Injection Pump.
> First point to note, is that the Steam Pressure in the Boiler, will be Exactly the same as the Water Pressure in the Boiler.
> If the pressure in the boiler is allowed to go higher than the Injection Pump delivers, due to over boiling and restrictions in the Steam exit from the boiler, then The Injection Pump will simply STOP delivering more water, until the escaping steam results in the boiler pressure dropping back to the normal Injection Pressure.
> But yes, boiler pressure can go higher than the Injection Pump for a while. And there is the danger.
> Rgds Hugh
> p.s. Perhaps I have not made the situation clear.
> I am talking about the long term, steady situation, and not short term of unbalanced operation, when there is more heat going in to the system, than the Engine can use for its Load.
> On 03/01/2012 03:32, Kurt wrote:
>> On 03/01/12 05:29, Hugh Leyton wrote:
>>> Hi Ray,
>>> Yes, low pressure are just toys for demonstration and much safer in the hands of kids.
>>> 300 psi is 20 atmospheres and dangerous to play around with. There have been many serious accidents and people killed with steam at these high pressures.
>>> Ray - It is the Injection Pump that creates the Pressure.
>>> Once the high pressure water is in the boiler, it is then converted to Steam, which is looking for a way to expand, it can only expand as it gets out of the boiler through the Engine Cylinders or Turbine blades. So the exit pipes will need to be a larger diameter than the input pipe, going to the condensers.
>> NO. The water pump is there to maintain correct water level in the boiler. The heat from the furnace is what turns the water into steam. Maintaning correct water level in the boiler is important, if certain parts of the boiler go dry they over heat in the neat from the furnace and can fail, catastrophically.
>>> It is the cold, or cool water After the Pressure Pump that determines the Pressure of the system.
>> Utter crap!
>> It is the heat from the furnace, together with the rate of steam usage that determines the pressure in the boiler. In something like a steam locomotive the operator has to be very careful how he contrtols his fire, if he does not want to end up stranded half way up a hill. Too high a pressure is not a problem, that is what the pressure relief (safety) valve is there for. Questions of the grade angle also have to be taken into account, so that the furnace end of the boiler never runs dry and overheats.